Albedo 手持型網路測試





Albedo 手持型網路測試



ALBEDO Ether.Genius is a multitechnology Ethernet tester that supports all the functionalities you need to install, commission and troubleshoot telecom services based on GbE, SyncE, E1, PTP, Jitter, Wander, Datacom and VF.


ALBEDO Ether.Genius

Ether.Genius is and hybrid TDM and Ethernet/IP generator and an-alyser. It comes with optional synchronization (jitter and wander)testing capabilities. Ether.Genius is suitable for testing in environ-ments where packet switching has not totally replaced legacy circuitswitching technology, like in some cellular networks. As GigabitEthernet tester, Ether.Genius offers multistream Ethernet traffic gen-eration and analysis over dual electrical and optical interfaces up to1Gb/s, RFC2544 and eSAM (ITU-T Y.1564) tests and advancedquality of service testing. As a TDM tester it includes BER tests,add&drop to datacom interface, extensive error and alarm analysisand jitter/wander testing.




  • Operation over two Gigabit Ethernet physical interfaces (PortA, PortB) based either on SFPs or RJ45 connectors.
  • Port C: Unbalanced (BNC) 75Ω / balanced (RJ45) 120Ω.
  • Smart Serial universal datacom connector for the DTE and DCE (all datacom interfaces).
  • Analogue voice frequency audio port.


  • Ethernet Endpoint operation: The equipment generates and receives Ethernet PCS codes and Ethernet frames.
  • IP Endpoint operation: The equipment generates and re-ceives IPv4 datagrams.
  • Through operation: Traffic is forwarded between port A and portB.
  • Ethernet L1 Endpoint operation: The equipment generates PCS codes and L1 BER measurement patterns.
  • E1 modes: E1 monitor, E1 endpoint, E1 mux, E1 demux, E1 through, analogue.
  • Datacom modes: Datacom endpoint, Datacom monitor.


  • Internal time reference better than ±2.0 ppm. Optional inter-nal reference better than ±0.2 ppm.
  • Ethernet input through Port A or Port B over any valid elec-trical / optical synchronous Ethernet interface.
  • 10 MHz, 2048 Mb/s, 2048 MHz, 1544 Mb/s, 1544 MHz input through Port C (balanced or unbalanced) or through DTE port (balanced interface, RJ-48 connector adapter).
  • One-pulse-per-second (1pps) synchronization input through DTE port (balanced interface, RJ-48 connector adapter).
  • 2048kHz reference output through Port C (balanced or un-balanced), 1pps through DTE port (balanced interface, RJ-48 connector adapter).


Table 1. Clock reference input levels




  • Supported interfaces (SFP): 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX, 1000BASE-T, 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX, 1000BASE-ZX.
  • Supported interfaces (RJ-45 ports): 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-T.
  • On/off laser control for optical interfaces.

2.1.1 Auto-Negotiation

  • Negotiation of bit rate. Allow 10Mb/s, allow 100Mb/s, allow 1000Mb/s.
  • Negotiation of Master and Slave roles in the 1000BASE-T interface.
  • Ability to disable auto-negotiation and force line settings.

2.1.2 Power over Ethernet

  • PoE (IEEE 802.3af-2003) and PoE+ (IEEE 802.3at-2009) detection.
  • PoE interfaces: 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T and 1000BASE-TX through attached RJ-45 ports A and B.
  • PoE pass-through when the equipment is configured in transparent (through) operation mode.


  • Supported interfaces: 100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T through the attached RJ-45 ports. 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX, 1000BASE-ZX and 1000BASE-BX through external SFP.

2.2.1 Operation

  • Analysis of synchronous Ethernet signal in Ethernet end-point, IP Endpoint and Through modes, generation of syn-chronous Ethernet signal in Ethernet endpoint and IP Endpoint modes. Transparent synchronous Ethernet pass-through in Through mode.
  • Configuration of internal, external or recovered clock in Ethernet interfaces.
  • Fixed freq. offset generation on transmitted signals with maximum value of ±125 ppm (resolution 0.001ppm) as per ITU-T O.174 (11/2009) 8.2.1.

2.2.2 Analysis

  • Measurement of the line frequency (MHz), frequency offset (ppm) and frequency drift (ppm/s) as specified in ITU-T O.174 (11/2009) clause 10.


  • Frame formats: DIX, IEEE 802.1Q, IEEE 802.1ad.
  • Support for Jumbo frames with MTU up to 10kB.
  • Setting of source and destination MAC addresses. Destina-tion addresses can be configured as a single value or as a range
  • Setting of the Type/Length value.
  • Configuration of the VID and priority codepoint in VLAN modes.
  • In Q-in-Q/IEEE 802.1ad modes, configuration of the S-VLAN VID, DEI and priority codepoint. Configuration of the C-VLAN VID and priority codepoint.
  • Configuration of the frame size.

2.4. MPLS

  • MPLS generation and analysis in IP Endpoint mode. MPLS analysis in IP through mode.
  • Support of a single and double label stack (Top and Bottom labels). Label formatting follows RFC 3032.
  • Configuration of the TTL, traffic class and label value for Top and Bottom MPLS headers.

2.5. IPV4

  • Configuration of source and destination IPv4 addresses. Destination addresses can be configured as a single value or as a range.
  • Configuration of DSCP CoS labels, TTL and transport proto-col.
  • If transport protocol is UDP, support of UDP frame with source and destination port configuration.


  • Generation over 8 independent streams. Each stream has its own specific bandwidth profile and payload/pattern con-figuration.

2.6.1 Bandwidth Profiles

  • Generation modes: Continuous, Periodic burst, Ramp and Random.

2.6.2 Test Patterns and Payloads

  • Layer 2-4 BER test patterns: PRBS 211-1, PRBS 215-1, PRBS 220-1, PRBS 223-1, PRBS 231-1 along with their in-verted versions and user (32 bits). These patters apply to stream 1 only.
  • Test payload for SLA tests.
  • All zeros test pattern.
  • NCITS TR-25-1999 RPAT, JPAT and RPAT for L1 BER tests.
  • IEEE 802.3, Annex 36A HFPAT, LFPAT, MFPAT, LCRPAT, SCRPAT for L1 BER tests.


  • Insertion of TSE, FCS errors, Undersized frames and IPv4 checksum errors.
  • Insertion modes: Single, burst, rate and random.


  • Up to 8 simultaneous filters can be applied to the traffic.
  • The equipment supports a generic filter which can select frames by using a 16 bit mask and an arbitrary offset de-fined by the user.

2.8.1 Ethernet Selection

  • By source and destination MAC addresses. Selection of MAC address sets with masks.
  • By Type/Length value with selection mask.
  • By C-VID and S-VID with selection mask.
  • By service and customer priority codepoint value with selec-tion mask.

2.8.2 MPLS Selection

  • Separated filters to account for the top and bottom MPLS headers.
  • Filtering by label value.
  • Filtering by traffic class.

2.8.3 IPv4 Selection

  • Selection by IPv4 source or destination address. It is possi-ble to select address sets by using masks.
  • Selection by protocol.
  • Selection by DSCP value.

2.8.4 IPv6 Selection

  • Selection by IPv6 source or destination address (or both at the same time). It is possible to select address sets by using masks.
  • Selection by IPv6 flow label.
  • Selection based on the next header field value.
  • Selection by DSCP value.

2.8.5 UDP Selection

  • Selection by UDP port. Either as a single value or a ranges.


2.9.1 Cable Tests

  • Optical power measurement (transmitted and received pow-er) over compatible SFP transceivers.
  • Inactive links: Open/short fault indication and distance to fault in metres (accuracy: 1m, range 100m).
  • Active links: current local port MDI/MDIX sta-tus, .cable wiring (straight, crossed), po-larity (positive, negative) pair skew (1000BASE-T only), crosstalk.

2.9.2 Auto-Negotiation

  • Bit rate and duplex mode.
  • Master/slave role in 1000BASE-T in-terfaces.

2.9.3 SFP

  • SFP presence, current interface, vendor, and part number.

2.9.4 Power over Ethernet

  • Type of PoE: PoE (IEEE 802.3af), PoE+ (IEEE 802.3at), none.
  • PoE voltage between pairs 1-2 / 3-6 and 4-5 / 7-8 in end-point test. Voltage and current in pairs 1-2/3-6 and 4-5/7-8 in through mode.


  • Support of local one-way (port A-port B) and two-way (port A-port A) test modes.
  • Separate traffic statistics for Port A and B.

2.10.1 Ethernet Statistics

  • Frame counts: Ethernet, VLAN, IEEE 802.1ad frames, Q-in-Q frames, control frames, pause frames.
  • Frame counts: unicast, multicast and broadcast.
  • Basic error analysis: FCS errors, undersized frames, over-sized frames, jabbers.
  • Frame size counts: 64 or less, 65-127, 128-255, 256-511, 512-1023, 1024-1518, 1519-1522, 1523-1526 and 1527-MTU bytes.

2.10.2 MPLS Statistics

  • MPLS stack length: minimum, maximum.

2.10.3 IP Statistics

  • Packet counts: IPv4 packets, IPv6 packets.
  • Packet counts: unicast, multicast and broadcast.
  • UDP packets, ICMP packets.
  • IPv4 errors, IPv6 errors.
  • UDP errors.

2.10.4 Bandwidth Statistics

  • Ethernet traffic statistics expressed in bits per second, frames per second and a percentage of the nominal channel capacity.
  • Unicast, multicast and broadcast traffic figures expressed in frames per second units.
  • IPv4 and IPv6 statistics (frames per second, bits per second and percentage).
  • UDP traffic (frames per second, bits per second and per-centage).

2.10.5 SLA Statistics

  • Multistream SLA analysis.
  • Delay statistics: ITU-T Y.1563 FTD (current, minimum, max-imum, and mean values).
  • Delay variation statistics: ITU-T Y.1563 FTD (standard devi-ation), ITU-T Y.1563 FDV (peak), RFC1889/RFC3393 jit-ter (current, maximum and mean values).
  • Frame loss: ITU-T Y.1563 FLR.
  • Duplicated packets, out -of -order packets (RFC5236).
  • Availability statistics: SES and ITU-T Y.1563 PEU.

2.10.6 BER

  • Bit error count, seconds with errors, bit error ratio (BER).
  • Pattern losses, pattern loss seconds.

2.10.7 Network Exploration

  • Top talkers statistics: Displays the 16 most common source MAC/IPv4/IPv6 addresses.
  • Top VID (IEEE 802.1Q) or C-VID (IEEE 802.1ad): Displays the 25 most common VID/C-VID tags.


  • The equipment supports automatic normalized tests defined in IETF RFC2544 and ITU-T Y.1564 (eSAM).
  • Support of local one-way (port A - port B) and two-way (port A - port A) tests.
  • Support of Ethernet and IP test modes.

2.11.1 IETF RFC2544 Test

  • Support of RFC-2544 throughput, frame-loss, latency, back-to-back and recovery time tests.

2.11.2 eSAM Test

  • Testing of up to eight services (non-colour aware mode) or up to four services (colour aware mode).
  • Configuration of the CIR and EIR for each service.
  • Configuration tests (CIR, EIR and policing) with FTD, FDV, FLR results for each service.
  • Performance test with FTD, FDV, FLR and availability re-sults for all services.


  • •Layer 1-4 loopback.
    •Loop frames matching current filtering conditions or loop all frames in layer 2-4 loopbacks.
    •Loop controls for broadcast and ICMP frames.


  • Generation of on demand ICMP echo request (RFC792) messages with custom destination IP address, packet length and packet generation interval.
  • Analysis of ICMP echo reply (RFC792) messages with measurement of round trip time and lost packets.
  • Analysis of ICMP Time-To-Live Exceeded and ICMP Port unreachable replies received in the trace-route test.

2.14. PTP / IEEE 1588

  • Operation: IEEE 1588-2008 transparent, non-intrusive mon-itoring in Ethernet Endpoint, IP endpoint and Through modes.
  • Support of hardware-assisted decoding of Precision Time Protocol (PTP) as defined in IEEE 1588-2008.
  • Encapsulations: PTP over UDP over IPv4 as defined in IEEE 1588-2008 Annex D, PTP over IEEE 802.3 / Ethernet defined in IEEE 1588-2008 Annex F.

2.14.1 Results

  • Presentation of peer clock details: Master identity, Grand-master identity, Grandmaster priority 1, Grandmaster priority 2, Grandmaster clock class, Grandmaster clock accuracy, Grandmaster clock variance, Grandmaster time source.
  • TX and RX PTP frame counts classified by frame type.
  • Sync Inter Arrival Delay (IAD) analysis: average and cur-rent.
  • Sync Packet Total Delay (PTD): standard deviation, range.
  • Sync Packet Delay Variation (PDV): current, maximum, av-erage.
  • Frequency offset between the master and the local clock (ppm).


  • ARP (IETF RFC826).
  • DNS (IETF RFC1034, RFC1035).
  • DHCP (client side) (IETF RFC2131).
  • Trace-route application using UDP.

3. ITU-T G.703/E1

3.1. LINE

  • Configurable input impedance: nominal line impedance, PMP 20dB, PMP 25dB, PMP 30dB, high impedance (> 1000 Ω).
  • Configurable output frequency offset within ±25,000ppm around the nominal frequency.
  • Line codes: HDB3, AMI.
  • Input Level: From 0dB to -45dB.
  • Pulse mask compliance: ITU-T G.703.
  • Jitter compliance: ITU-T G.823.

3.2. FRAME

  • 2048kb/s unframed, ITU-T G.704, ITU-T G.704 CRC, ITU-T G.704 CAS, ITU-T G.704 CRC + CAS.
  • Generation of custom NFAS spare bits (ITU-T G.704 frame with CRC-4 multiframe).
  • CAS A, B, C, D bit generation for each voice channel. Gen-eration of CAS multiframe spare bits (ITU-T G.704 frame with CAS multiframe).


  • PRBS9 (ITU-T O.150, O.153), PRBS11 (ITU-T O.150, O.152, O.153), PRBS15 (ITU-T O.150, O.151), PRBS20 (ITU-T O.150, O.153), PRBS23 (ITU-T O.150, O.151), PRBS9 inverted, PRBS11 inverted, PRBS15 inverted, PRBS20 inverted, PRBS23 inverted, all0, all1.
  • User configurable 32 bit word.
  • Tone (from 10 Hz to 4000Hz, from +6dBm to -60dBm).
  • External signal: Analogue, 64kb/s G.703/E0 (AT-2048 on-ly), data communications interface.


  • Analogue: Line attenuation (dB), frequency (Hz), frequency deviation (ppm), round trip delay (μs). Analogue results in-clude pass / fail indications.
  • Defects: LOS, LOF, AIS, RAI, CRC-LOM, CAS-LOM, MAIS, MRAI, LSS, All 0, All 1.
  • Anomalies: Code, FAS error, CRC error, REBE, MFAS error, TSE, Slip.
  • Live and history LEDs for all Defects and Anomalies.
  • ITU-T G.821 performance: ES, SES, UAS, DM. ITU-T G.821 results include pass / fail indications.
  • ITU-T G.826 performance: ES, SES, UAS, BBE (near and far end statistics). ITU-T G.826 results include pass / fail in-dications.
  • ITU-T M.2100 performance: ES, SES, UAS, BBE (near and far end statistics). ITU-T M.2100 results include pass / fail indications.
  • ITU-T G.711 occupation map and time slot analysis: maxi-mum code, minimum code, average code, time slot level and frequency.
  • CAS A, B, C, D bit analysis.
  • Drop to external output: Analogue, 64kb/s codirectional (PortA only), data communications inter-face.


  • Physical: AIS, LOS.
  • Frame: FAS error, CRC error, MFAS error, REBE, LOF, MAIS, CAS-LOM, RAI, MRAI, CRC-LOM.
  • Pattern: TSE, Slip, LSS, All0, All1.
  • Insertion modes: Single (anomalies), rate (anomalies), con-tinuous (defects), burst of M (defects), M out of N (defects).


  • Modulation waveform: sinusoidal.
  • Modulation frequency range: 1 μHz to 100 kHz.
  • Modulation frequency resolution: 0.1Hz (jitter), 1 μHz (wan-der).
  • Modulation amplitude: 0 – 1000 Uipp. Maximum depends on modulation frequency.
  • Modulation amplitude resolution: 1 mUIpp or 1/104 config-ured value.
  • Modulation amplitude accuracy: better than O.172.
  • Smooth amplitude changes in jitter range (10 Hz – 100 kHz).
  • Intrinsic jitter < 10 mUIpp.


  • Closed loop phase measurement method. Reference fre-quency not required.
  • Modulation frequency range: 0.1Hz to 100kHz (locking time 10s), 1Hz to 100kHz (locking time 1s), 10Hz to 100kHz (locking time < 1s).
  • Modulation amplitude: 0 to 1000UIpp (single range) (maxi-mum amplitude depends on modulation frequency).
  • Modulation amplitude resolution: 1 mUIpp.
  • Measurement accuracy: better than ITU-T O.172.
  • Jitter measurement results: peak to peak jitter, RMS jitter, maximum jitter (user reseteable), hits detection and count (user selectable threshold).
  • Jitter measurement observation time: 1s, 10s, 60s.
  • Measurement selectable filters: LP (f < 100kHz), LP+HP1 (20Hz<f<100kHz), LP+HP2 (18kHz < f < 100kHz), LP+RMS (12kHz < f < 100kHz).


  • Open loop measurement method. Reference frequency re-quired.
  • Modulation frequency range: 1μHz to 10Hz.
  • Wander sampling frequency: 50Hz.
  • Modulation amplitude: 0 to ±2s (single range).
  • Modulation amplitude accuracy: 2ns.
  • Instantaneous: TIE, frequency offset, frequency drift.
  • Statistics results: TIE, MTIE, TDEV.
  • Statistics range: 102, 103, 104, 105, 106s.
  • Built in, real time statistics analysis.


  • Operation modes: Eye diagram or continuous run.
  • Measurement of pulse width, rise time, fall time, level, over-shoot and undershoot (positive and negative pulses).
  • Pass / fail indication for compliance with ITU-T G.703 E1 mask.



4. ITU-T G.703/E0


  • Balanced (RJ-45) 120Ω.


  • Bit rate Nx64kb/s (N from 1 to 4).
  • Test pattern generation and analysis over co-directional in-terfaces.
  • Defect insertion and analysis: LOS, AIS, LSS, All0, All1.
  • Anomaly insertion and analysis: TSE, Slip.



  • Smart Serial universal datacom connector for the DTE and DCE (all interfaces).


  • V.24/V.28 asynchronous (RS-232) from 50b/s to 128kb/s.
  • V.24/V.28 synchronous (RS-232) from 50b/s to 128kb/s.
  • X.21/V.11 from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.
  • V.35 from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.
  • V.36 (RS-449) from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.
  • EIA-530 from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.
  • EIA-530A from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.

5.3. TESTS

  • Operation: DTE emulation, DCE emulation and full duplex monitor.
  • Test pattern generation and analysis over a datacom inter-faces.
  • Logic analyser capability.
  • Defects: LOC, AIS, LSS, All 0, All 1.
  • Anomalies: TSE, Slip.
  • Analogue: Line attenuation (dB), frequency (Hz), frequency deviation (ppm).



  • X.21/V.11 from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.
  • V.35 from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.
  • V.36 (RS-449) from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.
  • EIA-530/EIA-530A from 50b/s to 2048kb/s.


  • DLCI.


  • Long frames, short frames.
  • Alignment errors.
  • FCS errors •Frame abort count.


  • Bandwidth statistics
  • Maximum and minimum frame size.
  • Frames with FECN, BECN and DE.
  • Active DLCI list.
  • LMI frame count.

7. IEEE C37.94

  • Transmission media follows specifications of IEEE C.37.94 section 7. •Unframed or framed operation. Frame structure follows IEEE C37.94 section 4.1.
  • Configurable bit-rate between 64kb/s and 768kb/s in steps of 64kb/s.
  • Transmission clock: Recovered or internally synthesized.
  • Measurement of: frequency, frequency offset, latency and received bit rate.
  • Event detection and insertion: LOS, AIS, FAS, RAI (yellow), LSS, ALL0, ALL1, Slip, TSE.
  • BER and ITU-T G.821 performance test.


  • Tone Generation (from 10 Hz to 4000Hz, from 0dBm to -60dBm).
  • Level and frequency.
  • ITU-T G.711 analysis: maximum code, minimum code, aver-age code.


  • Direct configuration and management in graphical mode us-ing the keyboard and display of the instrument.
  • Remote access for configuration and management in graph-ical mode from remote IP site thought the patform Ethernet interfacel.
  • File management and download through web interface.


  • Operation time with batteries (LiPO): 8 - 10 hours.
  • Battery recharge time (LiPO): 4 hours.
  • Operational range: -10oC to +50oC.
  • Operation humidity: 10% - 90%.
  • IP rating: 54.
  • Configuration and report storage and export through at-tached USB port.
  • TFT colour screen (480 x 272 pixels).
  • Dimensions: 223mm x 144mm x 65mm.
  • Weight: 1.2kg (with rubber boot).